Ultrasound is successfully used in almost all branches of medicine; more often – in therapy and pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, urology and andrology, endocrinology (for diagnostics of thyroid diseases the ultrasound is generally a method of choice). However, orthopedists, traumatologists, and vascular surgeons receive a lot of ultrasound necessary for diagnosis and quality control of data.
Due to its availability and almost complete absence of contraindications, non-invasiveness, high informative value and relatively low cost of the patient’s service, ultrasonic diagnostics has been widely used in many outpatient clinics in the past decade, and in patients of all age groups it enjoys unconditional demand.
Here is not a complete list of the possibilities of ultrasound research:
– Abdominal cavity organs – hepatobiliary system, pancreas, stomach, spleen, partially intestine;
– urinary system – kidneys, ureters, bladder;
-endocrine system – adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands;
– mammary glands, salivary glands, lymph nodes;
– in obstetrics and gynecology – the establishment of pregnancy, fetal screening, examination of the uterus and its appendages, the dynamic observation of growth and maturation of follicles in parallel with the study of parameters of the endometrium (so-called folliculometry);
-in the male genitourinary sphere – examination of the prostate gland and scrotum organs, dopplerography of the vessels of the penis in violation of erectile function;
– Doppler techniques for the study of the heart and blood vessels of virtually all localizations;
-none sonography (study of the structures of the infant’s brain);
– research of soft tissues and musculoskeletal system.
Rules of preparation for ultrasound.
To conduct ultrasound of the abdominal organs, kidneys and adrenal glands for good visualization (especially in obese and elderly patients), it is recommended that the following training rules be observed.
2-3 days before the test, products that cause flatulence should be excluded from the diet, which include, first of all, black bread, legumes, fresh vegetables and fruits, milk, juices, carbonated drinks. Elderly and obese patients are prescribed enzyme preparations (festal, mezim, pancreatin) for 2-3 days during meals. It is advisable to have an easy meal on the eve of the study. If you do not have the opportunity to conduct a study in the morning, a light breakfast (for example, unsweetened tea with a bun) is allowed for 6-8 hours before the test. Food intake is also undesirable because the gallbladder contraction occurs and it becomes almost impossible to objectively assess its condition. The use of a cleansing enema is controversial. If you are recommended and ultrasound, and FGDS, conduct ultrasound at first, and not vice versa, because During FGDS, the stomach is filled with air to spread out its walls and flatulence occurs.
To study the organs of small pelvis (OMT) and men and women through the anterior abdominal wall (abdominal sensor), it is necessary to fill the bladder, for this purpose, 1-1.2 liters of non-carbonated liquid should be drunk for 1-1.5 hours before the scheduled time of the study.
Before the examination of the OMT with a transvaginal sensor (TV ultrasound), the bladder is emptied; it should be remembered that flatulence makes it difficult to study, so it will not prevent you from taking measures to prevent it from adhering to the rules outlined above.
Men in front of ultrasound of the prostate transrectally (TR UZD) are measuring the volume of the bladder with the subsequent determination of the residual volume, and then, after emptying the bladder, the prostate gland is examined through the rectum. On the eve of the toilet crotch and cleansing enema.
Ultrasound of the thyroid and mammary glands, lymph nodes, joints and soft tissues, heart, vessels and neurosonography do not require preparation.