Clinical laboratory methods of investigation are a set of diagnostic methods by which they reveal deviations in the composition and changes in the properties of tissues and biological fluids of the patient’s body in various diseases and disorders of the general state.
Laboratory methods of research should be carried out practically to all patients, as the results of the analysis enable:
– confirm or clarify the diagnosis;
– determine the cause of the disease;
– determine the severity of the course and the prognosis of the disease;
– choose the most effective treatment regimen;
– evaluate the course of the pathological process in dynamics;
– monitor the effectiveness of treatment;
– control of certain laboratory indicators for chronic diseases (for example, diabetes mellitus, anemia).
Each patient who first consults a doctor with a disability in the state of health is recommended to:
– general clinical blood test;
– general urine analysis;
– a blood test for glucose.
The most widely used hematological research methods (blood tests), since blood reacts most actively to changes in the body in all diseases.
The general clinical analysis of blood includes determination of hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), counting the number of cells in 1 liter of blood, determining the color index (reflects the relative content of hemoglobin in erythrocytes), and studying the morphological features of blood cells with their counting.
Blood for clinical analysis is taken in the morning, a light breakfast does not affect the results of the study, and abundant food, physical and mental stress significantly affect blood counts.
If the blood is examined in dynamics, it is necessary to take it at the same time of day and under the same conditions.
The data of a clinical blood test are taken into account in the course of the course of the disease and evaluated in conjunction with other laboratory tests and clinical manifestations of the disease.
Urine is widely used to diagnose various diseases and, first of all, for diseases of the urinary system. However, urinalysis should be performed on all patients who are concerned about pain or discomfort in the lower part of the trunk, to exclude the pathology of the urinary organs and to establish the correct diagnosis.
Clinical research of urine includes three stages:
– determination of physical properties (take a morning portion of urine collected in clean dishes) – quantity, color, transparency, pH, relative density;
– determination of chemical properties (qualitative and quantitative determination of protein, glucose, acetone, bile pigments, etc.);
– microscopy of sediment.
Determination of blood glucose level plays an important role in diagnosing diabetes, and minor violations of carbohydrate metabolism can be determined with the help of special tests for resistance to carbohydrates, for example, a test for glucose tolerance.
Biochemical blood test provides an opportunity to evaluate the functioning of internal organs (liver, kidneys, pancreas), as well as control the metabolic processes (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) in the body.
The biochemical analysis of blood is carried out:
– with diseases of the cardiovascular system (coronary heart disease, rheumatism, hypertension, chronic circulatory insufficiency, etc.);
– with respiratory diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, pneumonia);
– with diseases of the digestive system (liver, gallbladder, pancreas);
– with diseases of the urinary system (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis);
– with endocrine diseases and metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, obesity);
– with diseases of the musculoskeletal system (arthritis, arthrosis, gout), etc.
For example, for the diagnosis of a number of pathological conditions, it is very important to determine the total protein and protein fractions in the blood plasma. Using this study, you can determine:
1) the nature of the inflammatory process:
– Acute (polyarthritis, pneumonia, acute infectious disease);
– chronic (cholecystitis, cystitis);
2) changes characteristic of liver damage (toxic damage, hepatitis), kidneys, diseases of the blood system.
The determination of the concentration of uric acid is particularly important for the diagnosis of the initial stages of kidney damage and gout.
Everyone knows such a disease as atherosclerosis, which leads to pathological conditions in many organs and systems. In its development, the main role is played by the impairment of lipid metabolism, which is expressed in the increased content of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. With the help of biochemical blood tests, it is possible to determine the levels of these indicators and prescribe appropriate treatment to prevent the development of atherosclerosis.
Blood sampling for biochemical examination is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach. Usually, venous blood is taken for analysis. The use of water does not affect the results of tests, and physical and mental overstrain distorts the indicators.
After the results of the analysis, a doctor’s consultation is recommended, since their interpretation depends on the patient’s condition and complex evaluation.