Methods of physiotherapy – is an application with therapeutic and preventive and rehabilitation-restorative purposes of natural or artificially obtained (preformed) physical factors.
The natural factors include the sun, air, water, climate, mineral waters, therapeutic mud; to preformed – various forms of electrical, light, thermal and mechanical energy, which are acceptable for human exposure, transformed with the help of special physiotherapeutic devices.
Physiotherapy as a specialized field of medicine is an integral part of the complex treatment of patients. There are many diseases in which effective treatment is impossible without physiotherapy at all. With the greatest effect, physical methods are used in subacute and chronic processes in organs and tissues, the consequences of injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and spine, many diseases of internal organs, functional disorders in various organs and systems, diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system, obliterating diseases of peripheral vessels and others.
Physiotherapy is effectively used at all stages of medical rehabilitation, and physical factors are actively used to improve and prevent human diseases. Medical physical factors are actively used in restorative and sports medicine, as well as in reflexology (puncture physiotherapy).
Benefits of using physical factors:
– the range of methods of medical influence
– the time of treatment of the disease is reduced
– does not develop an allergic reaction
– the therapeutic effect of most drugs increases
– no drug dependence observed
– there is no adverse effect on surrounding organs and tissues
– has a mild painless effect of treatment
– is a non-invasive method of treatment (without compromising the integrity of the skin)
– a long aftereffect (shifts in the body and therapeutic effect not only persist for a long time, but often even increase after the end of the course of treatment)
– prolongs the period of remission for chronic diseases.
Modern physiotherapy has a large number of used physical factors and therapeutic methods.
Depending on the type of energy used and the physical nature of the acting factor, the following groups of methods are distinguished:
• Methods based on the use of low-voltage direct current (galvanization, electrophoresis)
• Methods based on the use of pulse currents (DDT, CMT, interference therapy, electrodiagnostics, electrostimulation)
• Methods based on the use of electromagnetic fields of different frequencies (UHF, EHF)
• Methods based on the use of magnetic fields of various parameters (alternating, pulsed magnetic field)
• Methods, which use the effect of electromagnetic radiation of the optical range (laser therapy, light therapy with ultraviolet, visible and infrared rays)
• Methods based on application of mechanical factors (therapeutic back massage, vibration therapy, UZT therapy)
In physiotherapy, the local therapeutic effect is directly on the pathological focus, the segmental effect on the reflexogenic zones, as well as the generalized (general) effect on the whole organism.
The complex effect of therapeutic physical factors is much more effective than the use of a single therapeutic factor. This is achieved by enhancing the effect inherent in a particular physical factor, by summing and potentiating influence, and by reducing the undesirable effect of one physical factor by another. Thus, it is possible to influence different aspects of the pathological process.
General contraindications to physiotherapy:
– hyperthermia syndrome (high body temperature)
– the general severe condition of the patient
– systemic blood diseases
– severe exhaustion of the patient
– malignant neoplasms
– alcoholic intoxication
– pregnancy I trimester
– individual intolerance to the physical factor